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Cannabis drug profile

Page history last edited by steve rogers 10 months, 1 week ago

Cannabis is a natural product, the primary psychoactive constituent of which is tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The hashish plant (Cannabis sativa L.) is widely disbursed and grows in temperate and tropical regions. Together with tobacco, alcohol and caffeine, it's far one of the maximum broadly fed on capsules all through the world, and has been used as a drug and a supply of fibre on the grounds that historic times. Herbal cannabis consists of the dried flowering tops and leaves. Cannabis resin is a compressed solid made from the resinous components of the plant, and cannabis (hash) oil is a solvent extract of hashish. Cannabis is nearly continually smoked, often blended with tobacco. Almost all consumption of natural hashish and resin is of illicit cloth. Some therapeutic gain as an analgesic has been claimed for cannabis, and dronabinol is an authorized medicine in some international locations for the remedy of nausea in cancer chemotherapy. Cannabis merchandise and Δ9-THC are underneath global manage.

 

Chemistry

The foremost lively precept in all hashish products is Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC or really THC), additionally recognized by using its International Non-Proprietary Name (INN) as dronabinol. The unsaturated bond in the cyclohexene ring is located among C-nine and C-10 inside the greater common dibenzopyran ring numbering system. There are four stereoisomers of THC, but handiest the (–)-trans isomer occurs clearly (CAS-1972-08-03). The completely systematic name for this THC isomer is (−)-(6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-three-pentyl- 6a,7,eight,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol. Two associated substances, Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol-2-oic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-four-oic acid (THCA), also are present in cannabis, once in a while in massive amounts. During smoking, THCA is in part transformed to THC. The active isomer Δ8-THC, wherein the unsaturated bond within the cyclohexene ring is placed among C-eight and C-nine, is discovered in a whole lot smaller amounts.

 

Physical form

 

Cannabis sativa is dioecious: there are separate male and girl flowers. The THC is essentially concentrated around the flowering components of the woman plant. The leaves and male plants have much less THC, while the stalks and seeds incorporate almost none. Plants have characteristic compound leaves with up to 11 separate serrated lobes. Imported natural cannabis occurs as compressed blocks of dried brown vegetable count number comprising the flowering tops, leaves, stalks and seeds of Cannabis sativa. Cannabis resin is normally produced in 250-g blocks, a lot of which bring a brandmark impact. Cannabis oil is a dark viscous liquid.

 

Pharmacology

 

The pharmacology of cannabis is complex via the presence of a wide range of cannabinoids. At small doses, cannabis produces euphoria, comfort of tension, sedation and drowsiness. In some respects, the effects are just like those as a result of alcohol. Anandamide has been identified because the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor and has pharmacological homes just like those of THC. When hashish is smoked, THC can be detected in plasma inside seconds of inhalation; it has a half-lifestyles of 2 hours. Following smoking of the equal of 10–15 mg over a length of 5–7 minutes, height plasma degrees of Δ9-THC are round a hundred μg/L. It is exceedingly lipophilic and extensively distributed in the body. Two lively metabolites are shaped: 11-hydroxy-Δ9-THC and 8β-hydroxy-Δ9-THC. The first is further metabolised to Δ9-THC-11-oic acid. Two inactive materials also are formed — 8α-hydroxy-Δ9-THC and 8α,eleven-dihydroxy-Δ9-THC — and plenty of different minor metabolites, most of which seem inside the urine and faeces as glucuronide conjugates. Some metabolites may be detected inside the urine for up to two weeks following smoking or ingestion. There is little proof for damage to organ systems among moderate customers, but intake with tobacco includes all of the dangers of that substance. Most hobby inside the detrimental properties of hashish has focused on its association with schizophrenia, although it continues to be uncertain if there may be a causative relation between mental fitness and hashish. Fatalities without delay because of hashish are uncommon.

 

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